# Shifting Left for Machine Learning: An Empirical Study of Security Weaknesses in Supervised Learning-based Projects

Farzana Ahamed Bhuiyan, Stacey Prowell, Hossain Shahriar, Fan Wu, and Akond Rahman in 46th IEEE Computer Society Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC), 2022 Pre-print

Context: Supervised learning-based projects (SLPs), i.e., software projects that use supervised learning algorithms, such as decision trees are useful for performing classification-related tasks. Yet, security weaknesses, such as the use of hard-coded passwords in SLPs, can make SLPs susceptible to security attacks. A characterization of security weaknesses in SLPs can help practitioners understand the security weaknesses that are frequent in SLPs and adopt adequate mitigation strategies. Objective: The goal of this paper is to help practitioners securely develop supervised learning-based projects by conducting an empirical study of security weaknesses in supervised learning-based projects. Methodology: We conduct an empirical study by quantifying the frequency of security weaknesses in 278 open source SLPs. Results: We identify 22 types of security weaknesses that occur in SLPs. We observe use of potentially dangerous function to be the most frequently occurring security weakness in SLPs. Of the identified 3,964 security weaknesses, 23.79% and 40.49% respectively, appear for source code files used to train and test models. We also observe evidence of co-location, e.g., instances of command injection co-locates with instances of potentially dangerous function. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we advocate for a shift left approach for SLP development with security-focused code reviews, and application of security static analysis.